News https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/news/feed en COVID-19 updates from LSHTM https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/covid-19-updates-lshtm <span>COVID-19 updates from LSHTM</span> <span class="field field--name- field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden">by <span lang="" about="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/user/181" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" xml:lang="">dextkste</span></span> <span>Fri, 03/13/2020 - 11:45</span> <div class="wysiwyg node-body clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><strong>Friday 13 March 2020</strong></p> <p>In line with the current UK government strategy, LSHTM remains open at this time. However, we are taking a range of sensible measures to prepare for a worsening outbreak, aimed at protecting our community by reducing the spread of infection, and minimising disruption to our teaching and research.</p> <p>We are rapidly moving to delivering teaching online. Reduced face-to-face teaching will begin from Monday 16 March, and no face-to face teaching will take place after Friday 20th March until further notice.</p> <p>We are advising staff and students against <a href="https://www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice/china">non-essential travel</a>. From Monday 16 March, we are advising staff in 'higher risk' groups (older adults, people with pre-existing health conditions) to work from home.</p> <p>LSHTM’s teaching and examination plans after the Easter break will continue to be guided by the government response, and our desire to minimise risk and disruption for our staff and students.</p> <p>We are committed to ensuring the safety of our staff and students, and are following official advice from the UK government and Public Health England, which is grounded on the best available scientific evidence.</p> <p>Working with our partners in the UK and around the world, our world-class research continues to support the global effort to tackle this virus.</p> <p>This includes infectious disease modelling to advise policymakers on the most effective control measures and our MRC Units in The Gambia and Uganda assisting Africa’s COVID-19 preparedness.</p> <p>Members of the UK Public Health Rapid Support Team, a partnership between LSHTM and Public Health England, funded by UK Aid, are supporting countries around the world with their response to COVID-19</p> <p>The outbreak of COVID-19 is unprecedented and fast moving. This coronavirus does not discriminate. No virus cares about race, gender or sexual orientation. If we all look out for each other, heed public health advice, and work collaboratively, the COVID-19 pandemic will end more quickly.</p> <ul><li class="MsoListBulletCxSpFirst"><a href="https://lshtm.sharepoint.com/Services/Safety/Pages/coronavirus.aspx">Latest guidance and FAQs for staff and students</a> - please check regularly for updates (intranet)</li> <li class="MsoListBulletCxSpFirst"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/new-students/starting-your-course-london/coronavirus-covid-19-advice-applicants-and-offer">Coronavirus (COVID-19) Advice for Applicants and Offer Holders - FAQ</a></li> <li>For all media enquiries please email <a href="mailto:press@lshtm.ac.uk">press@lshtm.ac.uk</a><em> </em></li> </ul><h3>Useful links:</h3> <ul><li><a href="https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/wuhan-novel-coronavirus">Advice from Public Health England </a></li> <li><a href="https://www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice/china">Travel advice from Foreign & Commonwealth Office </a></li> <li><a href="https://111.nhs.uk/service/covid-19">NHS 111 Covid-19 website</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019">Global updates from World Health Organisation</a></li> </ul><h3>LSHTM's response to COVID-19</h3> <p>LSHTM experts are involved in many different aspects of COVID-19 research as well as providing guidance to those responding around the globe every day. <a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/research/research-action/covid-19">Find out about our latest research, news, events and free online courses on the outbreak</a>.</p> <p>Subscribe to our new LSHTM Viral podcast to hear the latest science behind the coronavirus outbreak and the global response to COVID-19. You can listen to LSHTM Viral wherever you get your podcasts: <a href="https://anchor.fm/lshtm">Anchor</a>, <a href="https://podcasts.apple.com/gb/podcast/lshtm-viral/id1497329104">Apple Podcasts</a>, <a href="https://www.breaker.audio/lshtm-viral">Breaker</a>, <a href="https://castbox.fm/channel/LSHTM-Viral-id2608274?">Castbox</a>, <a href="https://www.google.com/podcasts?feed=aHR0cHM6Ly9hbmNob3IuZm0vcy8xMzQwNTUyMC9wb2RjYXN0L3Jzcw==">Google Podcasts</a>, <a href="https://overcast.fm/itunes1497329104/lshtm-viral">Overcast</a>, <a href="https://pca.st/8hv6o8lc">Pocket Casts</a>, <a href="https://radiopublic.com/lshtm-viral-8Xkzjn">RadioPublic</a>, <a href="https://open.spotify.com/show/1pmEtPchcDhfud8R63vzDJ">Spotify</a>, <a href="https://www.stitcher.com/s?fid=501908&refid=stpr">Stitcher</a>.</p> <ul></ul></div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-links field--type-link field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Links</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/research/research-action/covid-19">LSHTM research, news, events, podcasts and free online courses on COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/node/60471">Centre for the Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://lshtm.sharepoint.com/Services/Safety/Pages/coronavirus.aspx">Guidance and FAQs for staff and students (intranet)</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-courses field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Courses</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/short-courses/free-online-courses/coronavirus" hreflang="en">COVID-19: Tackling the Novel Coronavirus</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-introduction field--type-string-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Introduction</div> <div class="field__item">Latest statements from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine for media and the public during the outbreak.</div> </div> Fri, 13 Mar 2020 11:45:53 +0000 dextkste 102906 at https://www.lshtm.ac.uk Diamond Princess Cruise ship – new estimates highlight the successes and failures of the COVID-19 quarantine https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/diamond-princess-cruise-ship-new-estimates-highlight-successes-and-failures <span>Diamond Princess Cruise ship – new estimates highlight the successes and failures of the COVID-19 quarantine</span> <span class="field field--name- field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden">by <span lang="" about="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/user/311" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" xml:lang="">dextjbar</span></span> <span>Wed, 03/04/2020 - 12:46</span> <div class="wysiwyg node-body clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Of the more than 3,700 passengers and crew on the ship, 617 had become infected (17%) with the coronavirus by 19 February 2020. Led by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), the <a href="https://academic.oup.com/jtm/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jtm/taaa030/5766334">study </a>estimates if everyone had carried on as normal (not quarantined in their cabins) then 2,920 people would have been infected. However, if passengers had been evacuated when the outbreak was first detected, only 76 people would have been infected.</p> <p>Professor Annelies Wilder-Smith from LSHTM and study lead author said: “My deepest sympathies are with all those affected by this new virus. COVID-19 does not respect borders, race or gender.</p> <p>“With the Diamond Princess Cruise ship it’s easy to be wise after the event. Japanese health officials had an unprecedented situation on their hands. In many ways what they did was correct but of course, and Japan has admitted it themselves, their measures weren’t perfect. What’s important now is to learn from this event to ensure future effective control measures for COVID-19 are as strong as possible.”</p> <p>Cruise ships carry large numbers of people in confined spaces. They are consistently interacting over a period of time that is longer than for any other mode of transportation. They therefore present a unique environment for increased transmissions of human-to-human infections.</p> <p>On 3 February, 2020, an outbreak of COVID-19 had been reported on the Diamond Princess cruise ship off the Japanese coast. After docking near New Taipei City, on January 31, the ship arrived in Yokohoma, Japan. Initially, 10 people were confirmed to be infected with the virus. By 20 February, 619 passengers had become infected. The decision was made to evacuate and more than 3,000 passengers left the ship, mostly air-evacuated by their respective countries.</p> <p>By 24 February, two of the passengers had died.<sup></sup>The following day, the Japanese health ministry ordered a 14-day quarantine for everyone on the ship and rushed to close its ports to all other cruise ships.</p> <p>The public health measures exacted by Japan included the removal of all confirmed COVID-19 positive passengers and crew from the ship for isolation in Japanese hospitals, while passengers and crew that tested negative remained on board. Quarantined in their cabins, they were only allowed out of the cabin for one hour per day.</p> <p>In this study the research team applied well established mathematical models  to estimate the basic reproduction number under cruise ship conditions, first for the time period before quarantine was implemented, and then for the time period of the quarantine. They also modelled the effectiveness of the Diamond Princess quarantine and removal interventions. They then compared this with what may have happened if there had been an earlier and later evacuation of the ship.</p> <p>Professor Annelise Wilder-Smith said: “Our research has shown two things: Evacuation must happen quickly, and full quarantine is essential - people in lockdown must not mingle. In Europe we need a change in mindset, and to potentially implement more draconian measures than we’ve probably ever seen in the continent. For a disease that is spread in the community, we need a community response.”</p> <p>The authors acknowledge limitations of the study including the fact that they only studied human-to-human transmission and not via objects likely to carry infection.</p> <p><strong>Publication</strong></p> <p>Rocklöv J , Sjödin H, Wilder-Smith A. <a href="https://academic.oup.com/jtm/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jtm/taaa030/5766334"><em>COVID-19 outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship: estimating the epidemic potential and effectiveness of public health countermeasures</em></a><em>. </em>Journal of Travel Medicine. DOI: 10.1093/jtm/taaa030/5766334</p> <p>Read the latest expert comment and analysis on coronavirus from LSHTM researchers in our <a href="http://blogs.lshtm.ac.uk/inthenews/?s=coronavirus">media highlights</a>. Find out about our latest COVID-19 research and other activites at <a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/research/research-action/covid-19">lshtm.ac.uk/coronavirus</a>. Subscribe to <a href="https://anchor.fm/lshtm">LSHTM Viral</a>, a new global health podcast focusing on the science behind the coronavirus outbreak and global response.</p> <p>In episode 13 we speak to Professor Annelies Wilder-Smith about her new paper exploring the success and failures of quarantining the Diamond Princess cruise ship.</p> <p><iframe frameborder="0" height="102px" src="https://anchor.fm/lshtm/embed/episodes/S1E13-Turning-the-tide-on-COVID-19-lessons-from-the-Diamond-Princess-eb89vc/a-a1kkloi" width="400px"></iframe></p> <p> </p> <p> </p></div> <div class="field field--name-field-news-image field--type-image field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <img src="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/sites/default/files/diamond%20princess%20map_0.jpg" width="2442" height="1465" alt="Caption: COVID19 outbreak map 4 March 2020. Credit: LSHTM" title="Caption: COVID19 outbreak map 4 March 2020. Credit: LSHTM" typeof="foaf:Image" /></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-links field--type-link field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Links</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/uk-social-interaction-data-help-predict-virus-transmission-and-inform">UK social interaction data to help predict virus transmission and inform interventions</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/coronavirus-outbreak-estimated-peak-wuhan-mid-late-february-2020">Coronavirus outbreak estimated to peak in Wuhan mid-late February 2020 </a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/how-effective-thermal-scanning-airports">How effective is thermal scanning at airports?</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/node/60471">Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-courses field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Courses</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/masters-degrees/epidemiology" hreflang="en">MSc Epidemiology</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/masters-degrees/immunology-infectious-diseases" hreflang="en">MSc Immunology of Infectious Diseases</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-introduction field--type-string-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Introduction</div> <div class="field__item">Earlier evacuation of the Diamond Princess cruise ship during the onboard outbreak could have prevented many passengers and crew members from getting infected with COVID-19, according to new estimates published in the Journal of Travel Medicine.</div> </div> Wed, 04 Mar 2020 12:46:52 +0000 dextjbar 101231 at https://www.lshtm.ac.uk Bereaved individuals may face higher risk of dying from melanoma https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/bereaved-individuals-may-face-higher-risk-dying-melanoma <span>Bereaved individuals may face higher risk of dying from melanoma</span> <span class="field field--name- field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden">by <span lang="" about="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/user/8876" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" xml:lang="">lshth1</span></span> <span>Wed, 03/04/2020 - 10:45</span> <div class="wysiwyg node-body clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The researchers, led by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and Aarhus University Hospital, investigated whether bereaved individuals had a higher risk of being diagnosed with, or dying from, melanoma than the non-bereaved. They used data from two large population-based studies between 1997 and 2017 in the UK and Denmark.</p> <p>They found that melanoma patients who experienced bereavement had a 17% higher risk of dying from their melanoma compared with those who were not bereaved, with similar results seen in both the UK and Denmark.</p> <p>This <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bjd.18889">study</a> also showed that those who had lost a partner were 12% less likely to be diagnosed with melanoma compared with non-bereaved persons, with 620 and 1667 bereaved diagnosed in the UK and Denmark respectively over the 20 year period, compared with 6430 and 16,166 non-bereaved.</p> <p>While previous studies have suggested a link between various types of stress and progression of melanoma, which may have played a role in the finding, the researchers suggest that an alternative explanation could be that bereaved people no longer have a close person to help notice skin changes.</p> <p>This delays detection of a possible melanoma, and therefore diagnosis, until the cancer has progressed to later stages, when it is generally more aggressive and harder to treat.</p> <p>Each year, 197,000 people are diagnosed with melanoma globally. Melanoma makes up around 5% of all cancer cases in the UK and Denmark. The survival rate of melanoma patients is relatively high, depending on what stage the cancer is at detection. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving survival.</p> <p><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/wong.angel">Angel Wong</a>, lead author and Research Fellow at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, said:</p> <p>“Many factors can influence melanoma survival. Our work suggests that melanoma may take longer to detect in bereaved people, potentially because partners play an important role in spotting early signs of skin cancer.</p> <p>“Support for recently bereaved people, including showing how to properly check their skin, could be vital for early detection of skin cancer, and thus improved survival.”</p> <p>The researchers also encourage family members or caregivers to perform skin examinations for the remaining partner, and call for clinicians to lower their threshold for undertaking skin examinations in bereaved people.</p> <p>They acknowledge the study’s limitations, including the lack of information on some risk factors of melanoma, such as sun exposure or family history, but consider that this had limited impact on the conclusions drawn from this study.</p> <p>Dr Walayat Hussain of the British Association of Dermatologists said:</p> <p>“Detecting melanoma early can greatly improve survival and partners are key to this. Those without a partner should be vigilant in checking their skin, particularly in hard to reach locations such as the back, scalp, and ears.</p> <p>“Skin cancer is a disease which is most common in older people, who are also most likely to be bereaved, so targeting skin checking advice at this group should be a priority.”</p> <p><strong>Publication</strong></p> <p><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/wong.angel">A. Wong</a>, T. Frøslev, L. Dearing, H. Forbes, A, Mulick, <a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/mansfield.kathryn">K. Mansfield</a>, <a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/silverwood.richard">R. Silverwood</a>, A. Kjærsgaard, H. Sørensen, <a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/smeeth.liam">L. Smeeth</a>, <a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/lewin.alex">A. Lewin</a>, S. Schmidt, <a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/langan.sinead">S.M. Langan</a>. <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bjd.18889">The association between partner bereavement and melanoma: cohort studies in the UK and Denmark</a>. <em>British Journal of Dermatology. </em>DOI: <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bjd.18889">10.1111/bjd.18889</a></p></div> <div class="field field--name-field-news-image field--type-image field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <img src="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/sites/default/files/8191269068_724b920dfa_o.jpg" width="1418" height="945" alt="Malignant melanoma via pap stain. Credit: Flickr (Ed Uthman)" title="Malignant melanoma via pap stain. Credit: Flickr (Ed Uthman)" typeof="foaf:Image" /></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-links field--type-link field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Links</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2019/widowed-individuals-may-face-short-term-increased-risk-dementia-diagnosis">Widowed individuals may face short-term increased risk of dementia diagnosis</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/uk-ranks-poorly-deadliest-cancer-survival">UK ranks poorly for deadliest cancer survival </a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-courses field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Courses</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/short-courses/cancer-survival" hreflang="en">Cancer Survival: Principles, Methods and Applications</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/short-courses/global-ncd" hreflang="en">Global Non-Communicable Diseases: epidemiology, health systems and policy</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/masters-degrees/public-health" hreflang="en">MSc Public Health</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/masters-degrees/public-health-online" hreflang="en">Public Health by Distance Learning</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-introduction field--type-string-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Introduction</div> <div class="field__item">Individuals who experience the loss of a partner are less likely to be diagnosed with melanoma but face an increased risk of dying from the disease, according to research published in the British Journal of Dermatology. </div> </div> Wed, 04 Mar 2020 10:45:48 +0000 lshth1 101221 at https://www.lshtm.ac.uk Average cost of developing a new drug could be up to $1.5 billion less than pharmaceutical industry claims https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/average-cost-developing-new-drug-could-be-15-billion-less-pharmaceutical <span>Average cost of developing a new drug could be up to $1.5 billion less than pharmaceutical industry claims</span> <span class="field field--name- field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden">by <span lang="" about="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/user/8876" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" xml:lang="">lshth1</span></span> <span>Wed, 03/04/2020 - 09:18</span> <div class="wysiwyg node-body clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Co-authored by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and KU Leuven, led by LSE. The <a href="https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762311">study </a>estimated that the median cost of bringing a new drug to market was <strong>$985 million</strong>, and the average cost was <strong>$1.3 billion</strong>. This is in stark contrast to previous studies, which have placed the average cost of drug development as high as <strong>$2.8 billion</strong>.</p> <p>The researchers found that the cost of developing drugs varied across different disease areas, with cancer drugs being the most expensive. </p> <p> The team reviewed detailed financial reports filed by drug companies with the US Securities and Exchange Commission. They analysed data on 63 new drugs and biological agents, out of a total of 335 approved in the US between 2009 and 2018, to estimate how much, on average, drug companies spend on research and development to bring a new medicine to market.</p> <p>Most prior analyses have been based on confidential data voluntarily supplied by drug companies to researchers with financial ties to the industry. Independent teams have not been able to verify these findings.</p> <p>These estimates took into account spending on failed trials for other drug candidates, as well as the cost of raising money from investors. </p> <p>The researchers noted that the selective reporting of financial data by drug companies meant that drugs in some disease areas were overrepresented in the study. The sample also comprised mostly of smaller-sized companies, since many larger firms did not make their data publicly available.</p> <p><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/mckee.martin">Martin McKee</a>, Professor of European Public Health at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and study co-author, said:</p> <p>“We know that some governments are, in effect, paying twice for many medicines – funding the basic research that underpins their development and then buying them for their populations. Obviously, the pharmaceutical industry contributes too, paying for discovery and development, and deserves a fair reward. But without full transparency about what it contributes, it is impossible to know what is fair. Taxpayers expect no less.”</p> <p>Dr Olivier Wouters, Assistant Professor of Health Policy at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) and lead author of the study, said: “While it’s essential that the pharmaceutical industry continues to find it profitable to develop new drugs that save or improve lives, this study calls into question whether the high price tags of some new drugs are reasonable.”</p> <p>Dr Wouters said: "This is one of the most comprehensive studies to date on the costs of drug development based on publicly available data. It's not the whole picture, but if drug companies want to keep claiming that these costs justify soaring prices, then they need to make their data available for public scrutiny."</p> <p><strong>Publication</strong></p> <p>O.J. Wouters, <a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/mckee.martin">M. McKee</a> & J. Luyten. <a href="https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762311">Estimated research and development investment needed to bring a new medicine to market, 2009-2018</a>. <em>JAMA. </em>DOI: <a href="https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762311?guestAccessKey=07d020ad-9f38-428b-a798-714d5affb7dc&utm_source=For_The_Media&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=ftm_links&utm_content=tfl&utm_term=030320">10.1001/jama.2020.1166</a></p></div> <div class="field field--name-field-news-image field--type-image field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <img src="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/sites/default/files/6127240700_705e2d1117_o.jpg" width="2816" height="2112" alt="Drugs and money. Credit: Flickr (TaxRebate.org.uk)" title="Drugs and money. Credit: Flickr (TaxRebate.org.uk)" typeof="foaf:Image" /></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-links field--type-link field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Links</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/innovations-lshtm-have-transformed-health">Innovations from LSHTM that have transformed health</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-courses field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Courses</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/masters-degrees/health-policy-planning-financing" hreflang="en">MSc Health Policy, Planning & Financing</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/short-courses/pharmacoepi-pharmacovigilance-london" hreflang="en">Professional Certificate in Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacovigilance</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/short-courses/pharmacoepi-pharmacovigilance-online" hreflang="en">Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacovigilance by Distance Learning</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/short-courses/practical-pharmacoepi" hreflang="en">Practical Pharmacoepidemiology</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-introduction field--type-string-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Introduction</div> <div class="field__item">The costs of bringing a new drug to market may be lower than has been previously claimed by the pharmaceutical industry, according to a study published in the journal JAMA.</div> </div> Wed, 04 Mar 2020 09:18:51 +0000 lshth1 101216 at https://www.lshtm.ac.uk UK social interaction data to help predict virus transmission and inform interventions https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/uk-social-interaction-data-help-predict-virus-transmission-and-inform <span>UK social interaction data to help predict virus transmission and inform interventions </span> <span class="field field--name- field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden">by <span lang="" about="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/user/311" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" xml:lang="">dextjbar</span></span> <span>Tue, 03/03/2020 - 14:31</span> <div class="wysiwyg node-body clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The younger population in the UK is likely to be the main driver of an outbreak of a respiratory infection like COVID-19 due to having the highest social interaction rates, according to preliminary <a href="https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.16.20023754v1">research</a> from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM).</p> <p>During 2017/18, the ‘BBC Four Pandemic’ citizen science project collected detailed data on how the UK population interacts in various locations, including in the home, at work and at school. This was the largest study of its kind and conducted with the University of Cambridge and the BBC.</p> <p>Initial data from more than 36,000 participants has now been released to support ongoing modelling of the COVID-19 outbreak. The team analysed the extent of social interactions between different groups which can indicate how easily a virus might spread throughout that population, and inform strategies for prevention and control of new outbreaks.</p> <p>The findings suggest that 15-17 year olds have the highest social interaction rates – speaking to 2-3 other 15-17 year olds on average per day in a school setting. However, much like seasonal flu, the older age groups could experience the higher disease burden in terms of healthcare and mortality risk.</p> <p>Dr Petra Klepac, Assistant Professor of Infectious Disease Modelling at LSHTM, said:</p> <p>“One big question at the moment is how important children are in the transmission of the new coronavirus. In China, less than 10% of confirmed COVID-19 cases are under the age of 20, so there is definitely an absence of children in the reported cases.</p> <p>“Whether this is due to school closures since the outbreak began, we don’t yet know, but we can use this information on contact patterns in different locations to see how we might expect a disease to spread under different conditions.”</p> <p>The large number of individuals taking part in this study allowed the researchers to record almost 380,000 individual contacts between different age groups in different locations, enabling them to visualise patterns of interaction, either by conversation or physical contact.</p> <p>Dr Adam Kucharski, Associate Professor at LSHTM, said:</p> <p>“How people interact during a virus outbreak is a key indicator of how it will spread through a population, and is crucial for working out how this spread can be stopped. Most control measures for the COVID-19 outbreak are focused on reducing social contacts, through things like school closures, social distancing or working from home. Having good data on social mixing in a number of environments will hopefully allow us to make more realistic estimates of how effective these interventions might be in reducing disease transmission and slowing the outbreak.”</p> <p>The researchers were unable to collect data from children under 13 years old, so combined data from existing studies to account for this age group.</p> <p><a href="https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.16.20023754v1"><em>Contacts in context: large-scale setting-specific social mixing matrices from the BBC Pandemic project - Pre-print</em></a><em> </em></p></div> <div class="field field--name-field-news-image field--type-image field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <img src="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/sites/default/files/BBC_Pandemic_Hannah_Fry_0.JPG" width="1200" height="798" alt="Hannah Fry holding a smartphone displaying the BBC Pandemic App. Credit: 360 productions" title="Hannah Fry holding a smartphone displaying the BBC Pandemic App. Credit: 360 production" typeof="foaf:Image" /></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-links field--type-link field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Links</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/coronavirus-outbreak-estimated-peak-wuhan-mid-late-february-2020">Coronavirus outbreak estimated to peak in Wuhan mid-late February 2020</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/how-effective-thermal-scanning-airports">How effective is thermal scanning at airports?</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/node/60471">Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-courses field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Courses</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/masters-degrees/epidemiology" hreflang="en">MSc Epidemiology</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/masters-degrees/immunology-infectious-diseases" hreflang="en">MSc Immunology of Infectious Diseases</a></div> </div> </div> Tue, 03 Mar 2020 14:31:24 +0000 dextjbar 101201 at https://www.lshtm.ac.uk Sugar levy had no lasting negative impacts on the UK soft drinks industry https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/sugar-levy-had-no-lasting-negative-impacts-uk-soft-drinks-industry <span>Sugar levy had no lasting negative impacts on the UK soft drinks industry </span> <span class="field field--name- field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden">by <span lang="" about="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/user/8876" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" xml:lang="">lshth1</span></span> <span>Wed, 02/26/2020 - 09:34</span> <div class="wysiwyg node-body clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The analysis of stock market returns of soft-drinks companies registered on the London Stock Exchange, was led by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine with researchers from the University of Cambridge, and Exeter and Bath Universities, and funded by the National Institute for Health Research.</p> <p>The research found that, although companies studied in the research experienced negative stock market returns on the day the tax was announced, these companies’ returns had ‘bounced back’ over the following four days. They also noted that the soft drinks companies’ stock prices increased over the following two years to the end of the study.</p> <p>The SDIL was introduced as part of the UK Government’s <a href="https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/childhood-obesity-a-plan-for-action">Childhood Obesity Plan</a> to address childhood obesity, and related conditions such as diabetes and heart disease and help people reduce their daily sugar intake. The levy applies to drinks containing more than 5g of sugar per 100ml, but not to fruit juice, milk-based drinks, alcoholic drinks, or drinks from companies with sales of less than one million litres per year.</p> <p>On its announcement, the soft drinks industry claimed the SDIL would negatively affect businesses across the soft-drink supply chain, leading to job losses and a reduction in UK GDP, according to reports in the news media.</p> <p>The research team looked at stock returns of companies quoted on the London Stock Exchange under the beverage sector, excluding private label producers and eliminating alcoholic beverage manufacturers. This resulted in four companies - including the largest UK soft-drink firm - listed on the London Stock Exchange.</p> <p>Stock returns were analysed from July 2015 to July 2018, noting four key dates - the SDIL announcement on 16 March 2016; the release of draft SDIL legislation and consultation summary on 5 December 2016; the announcement of SDIL rates on 8 March 2017 and when the tax came into effect on 6 April, 2018.</p> <p>Researchers found that, on the day of the announcement, three of the four soft drinks firms experienced a statistically significant and abnormal decline in their stock return but stocks had returned to their normal levels within four trading days.</p> <p><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/law.cherry">Dr Cherry Law</a>, Research Fellow at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, the paper’s lead author, said: “Overall, the abnormal stock returns in response to the SDIL news we observed were negative but short-lived.</p> <p>“While the stock market initially perceived the SDIL announcement as detrimental to the soft drink companies, the ‘bounce back’ of abnormal stock returns suggests that negative financial impact might not be as substantial as claimed by industry in the news media.</p> <p>“This research provides an important foundation for more research into the value of fiscal interventions aiming at improving public health.”</p> <p>Professor Martin White, Professor of Population Health Research in the Medical Research Council (MRC) Epidemiology Unit at the University of Cambridge and Chief Investigator for the SDIL Evaluation, said: “On the day of the announcement of the SDIL, a number of soft drinks companies issued stark warnings to the news media about the anticipated negative impacts of the levy on their businesses, so we wanted to see whether these were borne out by the data. We already know that the levy has led to substantial reformulation of soft drinks, reducing sugar levels considerably. To confirm that the levy only minimally impacted on the share value of the four companies listed in the UK suggests the SDIL is a win for public health and economically viable.”</p> <p>Professor Ashley Adamson, NIHR expert in public health and nutrition, said:  “Conducting high quality research into the effectiveness of interventions like the sugar levy, designed to help us all choose healthier diets by making healthier choices the easy choice, is crucial in improving the health and wealth of the nation.</p> <p>“This study provides important evidence to inform decision-makers on how successfully their policies are working. It’s essential that more research is done on the wider impact of large-scale policies like this if we are to make the major advances in public health we so urgently need.”</p> <p><strong>Publication</strong></p> <p><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/law.cherry">C. Law</a>, <a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/cornelsen.laura">L. Cornelsen</a>, J. Adams, T. Penney, H. Rutter, M. White, R. Smith. <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X19302096">An analysis of the stock market reaction to the announcements of the UK Soft Drinks Industry Levy.</a> <em>Economics & Human Biology.</em> DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ehb.2019.100834">10.1016/j.ehb.2019.100834</a></p></div> <div class="field field--name-field-news-image field--type-image field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <img src="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/sites/default/files/CSP_8444.jpg" width="1199" height="800" alt="Chocolate bars at cornershop. Credit: Christian Sinibaldi" title="Chocolate bars at cornershop. Credit: Christian Sinibaldi" typeof="foaf:Image" /></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-links field--type-link field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Links</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2016/expert_comment_sugar_tax_in_budget.html">Expert comment on new sugar tax announced in the Budget</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2018/taxing-sweet-snacks-may-bring-even-greater-health-benefits-taxing-sugar">Taxing sweet snacks may bring even greater health benefits than taxing sugar-sweetened drinks</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2018/sugar-tobacco-and-alcohol-taxes-achieve-sustainable-development-goals">Sugar, tobacco, and alcohol taxes to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-courses field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Courses</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/masters-degrees/public-health" hreflang="en">MSc Public Health</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/masters-degrees/public-health-online" hreflang="en">Public Health by Distance Learning</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-introduction field--type-string-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Introduction</div> <div class="field__item">Leading UK soft drinks companies continued to experience positive growth in their share prices during the implementation of the UK Government’s Soft Drinks Industry Levy (SDIL), despite widespread industry fears the tax would harm their businesses, according to a new study published in Economics & Human Biology.</div> </div> Wed, 26 Feb 2020 09:34:50 +0000 lshth1 100911 at https://www.lshtm.ac.uk HPV vaccination found to prevent more cases and deaths than previous estimates https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/hpv-vaccination-found-prevent-more-cases-and-deaths-previous-estimates <span>HPV vaccination found to prevent more cases and deaths than previous estimates</span> <span class="field field--name- field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden">by <span lang="" about="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/user/8876" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" xml:lang="">lshth1</span></span> <span>Tue, 02/25/2020 - 09:18</span> <div class="wysiwyg node-body clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>HPV vaccination has higher health benefits and is more cost-effective than previously estimated, according to a new study published in <a href="http://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(20)30022-X/fulltext"><em>The Lancet Global Health</em></a>.</p> <p>The research, led by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, updated a mathematical model with new methods and data about population growth, ageing, and the number of women who get cervical cancer in different countries.</p> <p>The study team estimate that HPV vaccination will now prevent 26% more cases and 51% more deaths of cervical cancer when nine year old girls are vaccinated compared to previous estimates at the global level.</p> <p>Three HPV vaccines (bivalent, quadrivalent, and nonavalent) are widely available in the global market to protect against the different human papillomavirus types. The team estimate that vaccination in Africa will provide the highest relative health benefits with HPV vaccination now preventing 43% more cases and 68% more deaths of cervical cancer when nine year old girls are vaccinated compared to previous estimates in Africa.</p> <p>Cervical cancer ranks fourth in the global burden of cancer among females for both incidence and mortality worldwide, and is the leading cause of cancer death among females in 42 countries. In 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that there were 570,000 new cases and 311,000 women died from cervical cancer globally, with nearly 90% of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries.</p> <p>In May, 2018, the WHO Director-General called for global action to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem through improved coverage for HPV vaccination, high-precision screening tests, and treatment and care.</p> <p><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/abbas.kaja">Kaja Abbas</a>, Assistant Professor in Disease Modelling at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and study lead author, said: “We know HPV vaccination saves lives and is cost-effective. The results from this study suggests HPV vaccination can save more lives and is more cost-effective because the number of girls needed to be vaccinated to prevent a single case or death is lower than previous forecasts.”</p> <p>The mathematical model called PRIME (Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modelling and Economics) was originally developed in 2014 in collaboration with the WHO to assess the health impact and cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in girls around the world. It showed that vaccinating 12-year-old girls against HPV with the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines was cost-effective in almost every country.</p> <p>In this study, the researchers updated PRIME with new data post the licensure of the nonavalent HPV vaccine in 2014, as well as for population demography of the United Nations World Population Prospects 2019 revision, disability weights of the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study, and cervical cancer burden from the Global Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence 2018 database.</p> <p>The team then estimated the lifetime health benefits of HPV vaccination for 9-year-old and 12-year-old girls at 90% coverage during 2020-2029 in 177 countries. The health benefits of vaccinating 12-year-old girls was estimated to be similar but slightly decreased in comparison to vaccination of 9-year-old girls.</p> <p><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/jit.mark">Mark Jit</a>, Professor of Vaccine Epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and study senior author, said: “Only 11 of 48 countries in the WHO African region had introduced HPV vaccination by 2018 and only two countries had 90% or higher vaccination coverage among the primary target population of girls aged 9-14 years, despite WHO recommendation that routine HPV vaccination should be included in national immunization programmes.</p> <p>“Our work suggests HPV vaccination will provide the greatest relative health benefits in this region because of a higher disease burden of cervical cancer before vaccination. Our work reinforces the need for countries in Africa to introduce HPV vaccination and to scale-up coverage.”</p> <p>The study was funded by <a href="https://www.gavi.org/">Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance</a>, and the <a href="https://www.gatesfoundation.org/">Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation</a>.</p> <p>Dr Seth Berkley, CEO of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, said: “In the developing world, cervical cancer is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women. This important study shows just how effective the HPV vaccine could be at reducing this toll.</p> <p>“By the end of this year Gavi will have helped vaccinate 14 million girls with HPV vaccine, although a shortage of vaccine has meant that the demand from countries to vaccinate more than 10 million additional girls has been unable to be met.  This study sends a clear signal that we need to sustain funding for this lifesaving vaccine and urgently resolve the vaccine supply issues that are preventing us from reaching millions more girls.”</p> <p>The authors acknowledge limitations of their work including that herd effects are not considered; vaccination is considered to have no effect on women after sexual debut; cervical cancer incidence is assumed to remain constant in the absence of vaccination; and cross-protection against non-vaccine HPV genotypes is excluded.</p> <p>However, they note HPV vaccination may have an even greater impact and be more cost-effective than predicted here, because of a number of conservative assumptions in PRIME, such as the exclusion of herd effects and cross-protection against non-vaccine HPV genotypes.</p> <p><strong>Publication</strong></p> <p><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/abbas.kaja">Kaja M Abbas</a>, <a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/van-zandvoort.kevin">Kevin van Zandvoort</a>, Marc Brisson, <a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/jit.mark">Mark Jit</a>. <a href="http://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(20)30022-X/fulltext"><em>Effects of updated demography, disability weights, and cervical cancer burden on estimates of human papillomavirus vaccination impact at the global, regional, and national levels: a PRIME modelling study</em></a>. Lancet Global Health. DOI:<a href="https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S2214-109X%2820%2930022-X">10.1016/ S2214-109X(20)30022-X</a></p></div> <div class="field field--name-field-news-image field--type-image field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <img src="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/sites/default/files/44001403165_91ae4680a6_o.jpg" width="2480" height="1967" alt="HPV-infected squamous cell (koilocyte) of the cervix. Credit: Ed Uthman, Flickr" title="HPV-infected squamous cell (koilocyte) of the cervix. Credit: Ed Uthman, Flickr" typeof="foaf:Image" /></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-links field--type-link field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Links</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2019/hpv-vaccination-programmes-expert-comment">HPV vaccination programmes - expert comment</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2014/cervical_cancer_vaccinations.html">Cervical cancer vaccinations are globally effective and economical</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-courses field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Courses</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/masters-degrees/reproductive-sexual-health-research" hreflang="en">MSc Reproductive & Sexual Health Research</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/masters-degrees/demography-health" hreflang="en">MSc Demography & Health</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/short-courses/epidemiology-vaccines" hreflang="en">Epidemiological evaluation of vaccines: efficacy, safety and policy</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-introduction field--type-string-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Introduction</div> <div class="field__item">Researchers urge for more African countries to introduce and scale-up HPV vaccination</div> </div> Tue, 25 Feb 2020 09:18:28 +0000 lshth1 100871 at https://www.lshtm.ac.uk World failing to provide children with a healthy life and a climate fit for their future https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/world-failing-provide-children-healthy-life-and-climate-fit-their-future <span>World failing to provide children with a healthy life and a climate fit for their future</span> <span class="field field--name- field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden">by <span lang="" about="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/user/8876" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" xml:lang="">lshth1</span></span> <span>Wed, 02/19/2020 - 13:31</span> <div class="wysiwyg node-body clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The report, <a href="https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2819%2932540-1"><em>A Future for the World’s Children?</em></a>, was authored by more than 40 child and adolescent health experts from around the world, including <a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/balabanova.dina">Dr Dina Balabanova</a> and <a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/powell-jackson.timothy">Dr Timothy Powell-Jackson</a> from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.<br /><br /> It found that the health and future of every child and adolescent worldwide is under immediate threat from ecological degradation, climate change and exploitative marketing practices that push heavily processed fast food, sugary drinks, alcohol and tobacco at children.<br /><br /> Former Prime Minister of New Zealand and Co-Chair of the Commission, Helen Clark, said:<br /> “Despite improvements in child and adolescent health over the past 20 years, progress has stalled, and is set to reverse. It has been estimated that around 250 million children under five years old in low- and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty. But of even greater concern, every child worldwide now faces existential threats from climate change and commercial pressures.”<br /><br /> The report includes a <strong>new global index of 180 countries</strong>, comparing performance on child flourishing, including measures of child survival and well-being, such as health, education, and nutrition; sustainability, with a proxy for greenhouse gas emissions, and equity, or income gaps.<br /><br /> According to the report, while the poorest countries need to do more to support their children’s ability to live healthy lives, excessive carbon emissions – disproportionately from wealthier countries – threaten the future of all children. If global warming exceeds 4°C by the year 2100, in line with current projections, this would lead to devastating health consequences for children, due to rising ocean levels, heatwaves, proliferation of diseases like malaria and dengue, and malnutrition.<br /><br /> The authors suggest that the WHO’s Sustainable Development Goals should be reoriented towards child health and wellbeing.<br /><br /> The index shows that children in Norway, the Republic of Korea and the Netherlands have the best chance at survival and well-being, while children in Central African Republic, Chad, Somalia, Niger and Mali face the worst odds. However, when authors took per capita CO<sub>2 </sub>emissions into account, the top countries trail behind: Norway ranked 156, the Republic of Korea 166, and the Netherlands 160. Each of the three emits 210% more CO<sub>2 </sub>per capita than their 2030 target. The United States of America (USA), Australia, and Saudi Arabia are among the ten worst emitters.<br /><br /><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/balabanova.dina">Dr Dina Balabanova</a>, Associate Professor in Health Systems/Policy from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and report Commissioner said:</p> <p>“Our report is a radical new framing of child and adolescent health which demonstrates the need for a shift in emphasis from child health (often understood in purely biomedical terms) to their wellbeing, thriving and self-fulfilment. We have reached a point where the child health gains may not be sustainable or responding appropriately to environmental and commercial determinants of health.”</p> <p>“We need to put child health into context within planetary health and social development, removing barriers between governments and the public to create responsive and inclusive health systems and social institutions to combat persisting inequalities. It is clear that achieving this will require a fundamentally new mindset, political will and investment.”<br /><br /> The report also highlights the distinct threat posed to children from harmful marketing. Evidence suggests that children in some countries see as many as 30,000 advertisements on television alone in a single year, while youth exposure to vaping (e-cigarettes) advertisements increased by more than 250% in the USA over two years, reaching more than 24 million young people.<br /><br /> Children’s exposure to commercial marketing of junk food and sugary beverages is associated with purchase of unhealthy foods and overweight and obesity, linking predatory marketing to the alarming rise in childhood obesity. The number of obese children and adolescents increased from 11 million in 1975 to 124 million in 2016 – an 11-fold increase, with dire individual and societal costs.<br /><br /> The authors believes that children should be playing a crucial role in informing public health decisions. Dr Balabanova explained:</p> <p>“Children—more than ever before—are informed, vocal and seeking opportunities to get involved, as shown by the climate change protests. Using testimonials and accounts from children, this report demonstrates that giving children a voice and drawing in their energy can be a powerful way to promote change.”<br /><br /> The Commission authors call for a new global movement driven by and for children. Specific recommendations include:</p> <ul><li>Stop CO<sub>2</sub> emissions with the utmost urgency, to ensure children have a future on this planet;</li> <li>Place children and adolescents at the centre of our efforts to achieve sustainable development;</li> <li>New policies and investment in all sectors to work towards child health and rights;</li> <li>Incorporate children’s voices into policy decisions;</li> <li>Tighten national regulation of harmful commercial marketing, supported by a new Optional Protocol to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.</li> </ul><p><strong>Publication</strong></p> <p><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/balabanova.dina">D. Balabanova</a>, <a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/powell-jackson.timothy">T. Powell-Jackson</a> et al. <a href="http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(19)32540-1/fulltext">A future for the world’s children? A WHO-UNICEF-<em>Lancet </em>Commission</a>. <em>The Lancet Commissions</em>. DOI: <a href="https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(19)32540-1/fulltext#%20">10.1016/ S0140-6736(19)32540-1</a></p></div> <div class="field field--name-field-news-image field--type-image field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <img src="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/sites/default/files/20170314_LSHTM_Rizal_J3A3179.jpg" width="1200" height="800" alt="Child in Rizal, Palawan, Philippines. Credit: Joshua Paul for LSHTM" title="Child in Rizal, Palawan, Philippines. Credit: Joshua Paul for LSHTM" typeof="foaf:Image" /></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-introduction field--type-string-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Introduction</div> <div class="field__item">No single country is adequately protecting children’s health, their environment and their futures, finds a landmark report by a Commission convened by the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF and The Lancet.</div> </div> Wed, 19 Feb 2020 13:31:30 +0000 lshth1 100791 at https://www.lshtm.ac.uk UK ranks poorly for deadliest cancer survival https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/uk-ranks-poorly-deadliest-cancer-survival <span>UK ranks poorly for deadliest cancer survival</span> <span class="field field--name- field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden">by <span lang="" about="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/user/311" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" xml:lang="">dextjbar</span></span> <span>Wed, 02/12/2020 - 13:30</span> <div class="wysiwyg node-body clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>CONCORD is the global programme for the worldwide surveillance of cancer survival. The latest data from this programme, CONCORD-3, recorded global five-year survival for patients diagnosed with cancer over the 15 years between 2000 and 2014, enabling international comparison of trends in the overall effectiveness of health systems in dealing with cancer.</p> <p>The UK ranked 14th for cancer of the oesophagus, 21st for liver, 22nd for brain, 25th for pancreatic, 26th for stomach and 27th for lung.</p> <p>Together, these six cancers make up half of all deaths from common cancers in the UK, but just under 16% of people with less survivable cancers can expect to live more than five years after diagnosis, after other causes of death are taken into account.</p> <p>The Less Survivable Cancers Taskforce (LSCT) has recently presented these data at the House of Commons, calling on the UK government to commit to tackling the stark inequalities in cancer outcomes and aiming to double the survivability of these cancers by 2029. LSCT is pushing for new investment in research, a focus on earlier diagnosis and better and faster pathways to treatment for patients.</p> <p>Professor <a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/coleman.michel">Michel Coleman</a>, who leads the Cancer Survival Group at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, said:</p> <p>“Although our data show that global cancer survival has generally increased, survival trends vary widely, with large disparities between cancer types.</p> <p>“The reasons for poor five-year survival for some cancers are complex. We need to gain a greater understanding of the symptoms and signs that we enable earlier diagnosis for the less survivable cancers, and fund the vital research that helps improve prevention, early diagnostic techniques, and treatment.</p> <p>“We are very glad that the Less Survivable Cancers Taskforce has found the results of our research useful in advocating for research and investment to improve the outcomes for the patients they represent”</p> <p><strong>Data adapted from Allemani et al. <em><a href="https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)33326-3/fulltext">Global surveillance of trends in cancer survival 2000–14 (CONCORD-3): analysis of individual records for 37 513 025 patients diagnosed with one of 18 cancers from 322 population-based registries in 71 countries</a></em>. The Lancet. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)33326-3</strong></p> <p><strong>Note that only countries with age–standardised data were taken into account. Comparison tables <a href="https://protect-eu.mimecast.com/s/YCw0CO8KBCogKOtvrvp6?domain=drive.google.com">here</a>. </strong></p> <p> </p> <p> </p></div> <div class="field field--name-field-news-image field--type-image field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <img src="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/sites/default/files/CONCORD-3_0.jpg" width="3001" height="2078" alt="CONCORD-3: The world's largest study of cancer survival" title="CONCORD-3: The world's largest study of cancer survival" typeof="foaf:Image" /></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-links field--type-link field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Links</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2018/racial-inequalities-remain-cancer-survival-us">Racial inequalities remain in cancer survival in the US</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/research/research-action/features/surviving-cancer-how-big-data-helping-patients-live-longer">Surviving cancer: how big data is helping patients live longer, healthier lives</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-courses field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Courses</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/short-courses/global-ncd" hreflang="en">Global Non-Communicable Diseases: epidemiology, health systems and policy</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-introduction field--type-string-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Introduction</div> <div class="field__item">The UK ranks in the bottom half of 29 countries for five year survival for ‘less survivable cancers’, according to research published by the CONCORD programme based at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.</div> </div> Wed, 12 Feb 2020 13:30:44 +0000 dextjbar 100561 at https://www.lshtm.ac.uk Coronavirus outbreak estimated to peak in Wuhan mid-late February 2020 https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/coronavirus-outbreak-estimated-peak-wuhan-mid-late-february-2020 <span>Coronavirus outbreak estimated to peak in Wuhan mid-late February 2020</span> <span class="field field--name- field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden">by <span lang="" about="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/user/311" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" xml:lang="">dextjbar</span></span> <span>Wed, 02/12/2020 - 11:25</span> <div class="wysiwyg node-body clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The LSHTM team used a mathematical model, incorporating multiple datasets to <a href="https://cmmid.github.io/ncov/wuhan_early_dynamics/index.html">make the analysis</a> as reliable as possible, to estimate how the basic reproduction number (R0) of the new virus changed in the early stages of the outbreak. This number is the average number of people who will catch the disease from a single infected person, in a population that’s never seen the disease before.</p> <p>It showed that transmission of the new coronavirus in Wuhan prior to travel restrictions being introduced in the city on 23 January 2020 varied considerably over time, with each infected person on average transmitting the disease to an extra one to four people (R0 1.5-4.5).</p> <p>They then used the data to further model what might happen in the coming weeks.</p> <p><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/kucharski.adam">Adam Kucharski</a>, Associate Professor at LSHTM and a member of the modelling team, said: "A big question at the moment is when the outbreak will peak in Wuhan. We used a combination of data – including case reports in Wuhan, exported international cases and test results from evacuation flights out of Wuhan – to estimate the current trajectory of the outbreak in Wuhan and potential increase in new cases there in the near future. Current trends suggest a peak in mid-to-late February, although there is of course a lot of uncertainty in exactly when this will occur and how big it might be."</p> <p><a href="https://cmmid.github.io/ncov/wuhan_early_dynamics/index.html">This analysis has not been peer reviewed</a>. The team say there are limitations to their work, including that there is substantial uncertainty about what the exact height and timing of the peak might be - currently the model predicts the peak as a result of susceptibility declining to the point where transmission cannot be sustained. The team will continue to refine these projections as they receive data.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p></div> <div class="field field--name-field-news-image field--type-image field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <img src="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/sites/default/files/illustration-of-wuhan-coronavirus-white.jpg" width="900" height="505" alt="Caption: illustration of coronavirus. Credit: CDC/Alissa Eckert" title="Caption: illustration of coronavirus. Credit: CDC/Alissa Eckert" typeof="foaf:Image" /></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-links field--type-link field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Links</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/how-effective-thermal-scanning-airports">How effective is thermal scanning at airports?</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2020/coronavirus-comment-expert-reaction-peter-piot">Coronavirus comment - expert reaction from Peter Piot</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/node/60471">Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-related-courses field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related Courses</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/masters-degrees/epidemiology" hreflang="en">MSc Epidemiology</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/study/courses/masters-degrees/immunology-infectious-diseases" hreflang="en">MSc Immunology of Infectious Diseases</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-introduction field--type-string-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Introduction</div> <div class="field__item">The coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan could peak in mid-to-late-February if the basic reproduction number (R0) of the virus continues to vary as it has in Wuhan, according to preliminary new estimates from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.</div> </div> Wed, 12 Feb 2020 11:25:19 +0000 dextjbar 100541 at https://www.lshtm.ac.uk